What is Arduino

Arduino is an open source mini computer with hardware and software oriented electronic project development board for electronic engineers. The name Arduino is not micro controller and it consist with Atmega-238 MCU.
Arduino is an open source platform for electronic projects. Arduino consist of inbuilt programmable circuit and software like IDE (Integrated Development Environment) that runs on your computer for compiling and upload computer code to the Arduino development board with the help of USB cable.


The Arduino IDE uses a simplified version of C++ and it makes easier to learn to program.
The Arduino development boards are designs with variety of microprocessor and micro controller versions. The Arduino boards are equipped with set of Digital and Analog Input and Output called (IO) pins. This pins may be interfaced to various expansion boards of sensors or and other circuits. This boards includes serial communication interfaces, including USB, and this USB also used for loading programs from personal computer to our Arduino Development boards.


There are many variety of boards available in the market and follow this link ( Types of Arduino Boards)
We can apply DC Power to the arduino boards via USB (From Computer via USB 5V only) and available one number of DC Input socket and we apply from 6V to DC 20V power.
PIN:6,7. GROUND (GND) Which can be used to ground your circuit.
PIN:5. It gives 5V from board.
PIN:4. It gives 3.3 volts from the help of onboard 3.3 volt smd regulator.
ANALOG PIN: This pin under the Analog In Lable ( A0 to A5) These pins can read the signal input analog sensors and converts it into digital value.
DIGITAL PIN: (0 to 13 on UNO Boards) These pins are used for both Digital inputs (Interface sensor and push button switches) and Digital Outputs (to drive led and relays)
PWM PIN: 8. The tilde (~) next to some of the digital pins (3,5,6,9,10 and 11 on UNO) These pins are act as normal digital pins, but can also be used for PWM is used to control LED Brightness like.
AREF: is called Analog Reference
RESET PIN: 3. This pin is used to restart and code the is loaded on the Arduino from the beginning.
A tiny SMD LED mounted on board and this LED should light up when you plug your Arduino int power supply.
Tx and Rx LEDS: (Tx means serial Transmitter and Rx is Serial Receiver)
This LEDS will indicates some visual indications when our Arduino is receiving or transmitting data.
The plastic package Atmega-328 is mounted on the board and it is the brain of our Arduino boards. This IC slightly different for board type to boad, but is form the Atmega from Atmel company.
It regulates the input DC 12V into 5V Dc the amout of voltage that is let into the Arduino Boards. Dont apply more than 20V Dc to input Dc Socket.

DOWNLOAD ARDUINO SOFTWARE: Arduino software for your Operating system: https://www.arduino.cc/en/Main/Software
Arduino has many boards from Arduino Nano and goes to Arduino Mega.
1. Arduino Nano.
2. Arduino Uno.
2. Arduino Mega.
4. Arduino Due.
5. Arduino Flo.
6. Lily Pad Arduino.
7. Arduino Extreme.
Futures of Arduino UNO:

Micro-controller (MCU) ATmega328
Operating Voltage (DC) 5V
Input Supply Voltage (External ) 6-20VDC (MAX)
Recommended Input Supply Voltage (DC) 7-12V
Number of Digital Input / Output (I/O) Pins 14 Pins
PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) outputs 6 Pins (Pin 3, 5, 6,9,10 and 11)
Input Pins (Analog) 6 Pins (A0-A5)
DC Current (Max) 40 mA (per I/O Pin)
DC Current for 3.3V Pin 50 mA
Flash Memory  32 KB (ATmega328) ( 0.5 KB used by boot-loader)
Frequency (Clock Speed) 16 MHz
SRAM (Memory  2 KB (ATmega328 MCU)
EEPROM 1 KB (ATmega328 MCU)

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