How to Connect 100 White LEDs on 230 AC mains:
Here is 100 white LEDs Display on AC main. This circuit is easy and very clever. Because No rectifier diodes are needed. We use the LEDs are the rectifiers.
How it works?
We need to use at least 50 LEDs in each string and the 1K resistor. To prevent them from being damaged via a surge. If the circuit is turned on at the peak of the waveform.
The resistor is provided to take a heavy surge current through one of the strings of LEDs if the circuit is switched on when the mains is at a peak.
Though we can add more LEDs to each string, the current will drop a very small amount until eventually, when you have 90 LEDs in each string, the current will be zero.
For 50 LEDs in each string, the total characteristic voltage will be 180V. Each LED requires 3.3V to 3.6V.
Each LED will take less than 7mA peak during the half-cycle they glow.
Anyway, Look at the 1K resistor. It will drop 7v. Because the RMS current is 7mA (7mA x 1,000 ohms = 7v).
And its Wattage is 7V x 7mA = 49mW.
You must have LEDs in both directions to charge and discharge the capacitor.