SOLAR CELL OPERATION:- When the sunlight is incident on a photovoltaic cell, it is converted into electric energy. Such an energy converter is called solar dell of solar battery and is used in satellites to provide the electrical power. This cell consists of a single semiconductor crystal which sis doped with both P and N type impurities, thereby forming a PN junction solar cell. The sunlight incident on the glass plate G passes through is and reaches the junction. An incident light photon at the junction may collide with a valence electron and gives sufficient energy to make a transition to the conduction band.
The result an electrons-holes pair is formed. The newly formed electrons are minority carriers in the p-region. They movies freely cross the junction, Since holes formed in the N-region cross the junction in the opposite direction. The flow of these electrons and holes across the junction is in a direction opposite to the conventional forward current in a PN junction. This gives rise to a photovoltaic voltage across the junction in the open circuit condition.
In bright sunlight, about 0.6v is developed by a single solar cell. The amount of power the cell can deliver depends o the extent of its active surface. An average cell will produce about 30mW per square inch of surface, operating in a load of 4o hms.
To increase the power output, large banks of cells are used in series and parallel combinations. The efficiency of the solar sell is measured by the ratio of electric energy output to the light energy input.
At present, and efficiency in the rage of 10 to 40% is obtained.
Silicon and selenium are the materials used widely in solar cells because of their excellent temperature characteristics
How Solar Panel Works?
The solar cells are photo voltaic cells or modules (modules are a collection of solar cells electrically connected and joined together in one frame). Photo voltaics, (photo =light, voltaic = electricity),convert the energy of sunlight directly into electricity.
The combiner connects multiple wires carrying the electrical current generated by individual solar panels together into a single, larger capacity wire, which then flows to the invertor. The combiner works in a solar electrical system much like a manifold does in a hydraulic system.
The Converter transforms direct current electricity produced by the solar panels into alternating current (AC) electricity–the form of electricity used by most standard lights, motors, computers and air conditioners.
The inverter also provides safety functions such as automatic shutdown of the solar electric system in the event of a power failure.
The Battery: Using for storage:
Sealed maintenance batteries for remote Installations,Tubular Deep Discharge batteries for long life and high capacity applications
Between solar array and Batteries the Solar Charge Controllers ensures efficient charging of batteries and total protection for the system DC Loads .Some advanced Solar Current will monitor and report charging conditions.
Panels can be installed on
On the roof of the house,
Bus stands ,Bill board display,
moving led display for Municipal and city corporation ,
and many more wide applications,
Solar fans ,
Home lighting Systems ,
Solar water Purifiers ,
water and Desalination plant is good application of solar energy where there is shortage of Both Water and Electricity,
Special Air conditioners with DC Compressors and built in batteries work day and night with PV system connected to AC Units
Solar Panels. How it is connected into the home below:
HOW MANY WATTS UPS AND AH OF THE BATTERY:
LOAD POINTS TUBE + FAN
50 % LOAD
4T +3F Pc or tv
4T+3F Pc or Tv
5T+5F Pc or Tv
5T+5F Pc or Tv
7T+6F Pc or Tv
2 No, 120AH
8T+8F Pc or Tv
8F+8T Pc or Tv
INSTALLATION AND PRECAUTIONS FOR USE.
- Always connect the ups to a two-pole, three-wire grounding mains.
- Avoid installing the ups in an excessively humid place or where is water.
- To switch off the ups output in an emergency, use the switch on the front to switch the ups off.
- ups200VA, 400VA,675VA,875VA,1000VA,1.5k UP TO 10KVA
UPS AND BATTERY MAINTENANCE
This ups is specially for large back up to home appliances with multi functions. Its light weight, compact design perfect fits to the limited working environment. The line of ups is equipped with boost and buck AVR to stabilize input voltage range. It is also built-in-dc power supplied.
TUBULAR & TALL TUBULAR BATTERIES FEATURE:
- Unique patented alloy composition of battery protects the lead parts form corrosion,even when the battery is charge d with high voltage.
- Extremely high purity,corrosion,resistant proprietary spine alloy ensures longer life.
- Extra strong, flexible oxidation-resistant gauntlet for higher performance and extremely long.
- High puncture resistant DARAMIC USA separate minimizes the possibility of internal short circuits.
- Equally spread positive active materials for better functioning and very low top-up.
- Better and quick charge acceptance.
- Designed to have a life of over 1250 cycles at 80% Depth of discharge.
- THE MAIN FEATURES OF UPS ARE:
|INPUT||Regulated UPS MODEUnder voltage RestorationOvervoltage Restoration||180 +/-5V180 +/- 5v265 +/- 5v|
|OUTPUT||VOLTAGE (UPS MODE)Voltage mains modeFrequency (ups)Mains modeTransfer time||230V NormalSame as input50 HZ +/- 2%Same as input10 ms.|
|BATTERY||Lead acid typeProtection||1ooAh to 180AhLow battery, Reverse polarity|
|ALARM||Low batteryLow battery tripMains to upsOverload|
No load shut down
Charge fuse blown
|Every 10 sec.,Continuous beeping for 10 secBeeping for every 2 sec., for 5 tiContinuous beep sound 10 sec.,|
Continuous beep for 10 s
Continuous beep for 10 s
Continuous beep for 10 s
|ENVIRONMENTAL||Operating temp.Storage temp.||0-40 c0-40 c|
- Microcontroller guarantees high reliability.
- Equipped with boost and buck AVR.
- Led indication for energy saving.
- Dc start function.
- Auto restart while AC recovery.
- Compact size, light weight.
- The mains socket outlet that supplies the ups shall be installed near the ups and shall be accessible.
- Do not plug the ups input into its own output
- Do not attach a power strip or surge suppressor to the ups.
- To reduce the risk of overheating the ups, do not cover.
- Unplug the ups prior to cleaning and do not use liquid.
- Do not dispose of batteries in afire as they may explode.
- Do not open or mutilate the battery or batteries.
- Released electrolyte is harmful to the skin and eyes.
- A battery can present a risk of electrical shock and high short circuit current. The following precautions should be observed when working on batteries.
- Servicing of batteries should be performed of supervised by personnel knowledge of batteries and the required precautions.
- When replace batteries, replace with the same number and type.